Database Fundamentals this one knowledge should every one know

Both programming experts and customers must be trained for Database Fundamentals. If you miss the real sense of the words, as those jargons come to you, you will still find confusion and discomfort. This essay is for both a beginner and an intermediate to plan and an expert to review matters. My solution is to mention anything related to the idea of databases.

[1] Relations between the entity and the entity:

Entity: Entity:

An entity is a location, item or thing about which information may be collected.

For example, students are an entity, and we may collect information such as name, telephone and address. The name, telephone and address of the entity ‘student’ are the attributes here.

Diagram of Entity-Relationship:

Often referred to as the E-R graph. E-R Diagram is the visual representation of the entity, the characteristic of the entity and its Relationship.

[2] Database: [2]

Data: Data:

Data is the single knowledge object.

Like if an employee’s name is ‘John,’ then ‘John’ is an info. His phone number is ‘+9109880959786,’ so it’s also an info. The value of any entity’s attribute can be described as data.

Data is, therefore, the established facts that can be reported and which have their tacit significance. e.g. name, phone, address and so on.

Data is a plural and ‘date’ is a unique data type.

Information: Information:

When the data set is obtained in a practical way, information is provided.

As if we take an example of the ‘John’ employee. Name is ‘John,’ ‘Telephone no.’ The name is ‘DBA.’ Name is ‘John,’ ‘DBA.’ If we study them together, we get facts that ‘John’ is a telephone employee and is called ‘DBA.’

So, if any data are gathered together, information is produced.
But this knowledge is not for the robot, it is just for people.

Base of data:

The database is an associated data set.

The database is a theoretically consistent and inherently significant data set. A random range of data cannot be considered as a database. Such as a telephone diary is a database, but it cannot be said as a directory if it is then arbitrarily stored.
The database may be manually or computerized. The collection of the library is also a directory.

[3] System for Database Management (DBMS):

Database Management System is a set of programmes and resources for creating and maintaining the database.

A DBMS is also a software framework for general purposes that makes it easier to define, build and handle databases for different applications.

Database Management System Characteristics:

(1) Definition of oneself

(2) Programs isolation and data abstraction

(3) Support for Many Database Views.

[4] DBMS advantages:

1- Redundancy Controlling:

Both database structures have provisions that redundant data storage can be avoided.

2- Unauthorized Security Over Access:

This is the attribute contained in the database where nobody can edit or store the database without a proper username. With the flat file (sequential) method, the protection cannot be accomplished.

3- Including Database Objects Persistent Storage:

The database can be used to store programme objects, database and database structures continuously. This means that the database can store a dynamic object with programming languages. This allows the database to be more flexible and compatible with programming languages.

4- Permitting Rules of Procedure and Actions:

The way to deduct rules for inferencing new information from a stored database is referencing. This database is known as the Deducible Database. In other words, there must be certain methods for providing information on the stored database by logical execution.

6- Multiple user interface permission:

DBMS is able to execute different portions of the database simultaneously. The DBMS also treats deadlock and other exceptions in this solution.

5- Recovery and Backup:

Database management systems provide the correct procedure to save and restore the whole database if a failure happens. There are disaster recovery strategies in all DBMS.

[5] Models of data:

A data model is a collection of computational methods to describe data, their Relationship, semanticity and constraints. The following data models are available

(1) Model of Hierarchy

(2) Model Network

(3) Model of relationships

(4) Relational Object Model

Both of these will be out of place to describe. You should remember that the Relational Model is popular for both of these. Recent DBMS implementation follows the Object Model. For example, Oracle, Sybase and SQL Server.

[6] Independence of logical and physical data:

Data independence is the consistency of DBMS, which ensures that the ability to modify the database does not affect the different level. As the physical storage changes (Internal level) will not affect the layout of the database (Conceptual Level).

(1) Independence of logical data:

Capacity to alter the logical layout without altering the database’s external and internal schema.

(2) Independence of physical data:

Ability to alter the physical schema without changing the database model scheme.

[7] Languages database:

There are the following languages in the database

[1] DDL [1] (Data Definition Language)

[2] DML [DML] (Data Manipulation Language)

[3] DCL [3] (Data Control Language)

[1] DDL DDL (Data Definition Language)

This is the vocabulary used to build the database configuration and schema. This terminology concerns the description of the entire framework of the database.
For defining and managing all objects in a database, DDL is used. For example, creating databases, creating authentication artefacts to describe the whole database.

[2] DML [DML] (Data Manipulation Language)

Insert, update, exclude and choose the operations related to the vocabulary of database exploitation.
DML is used in Selecting, Inserting, Updating and Deleting data in DDL specified objects.

[3] DCL [3] ( Database Control Language)

Database language management concerns accuracy, authorization of access and other database control.

Any other languages need to be learned. This is –

VDL (View Definition Language): Providing means of viewing a database concept scheme for the third-level external schema.

SDL: Providing ways for changing or modifying the internal database scheme.

[8] Basis of relationships:

The relation database model is based on the principle of the implementation of the database with the theory of the mathematical set. Data is collected from table named Relationship in the set theory in this model. The Data Table includes rows and columns in which rows represent a number of attributes of a particular entity, representing the entity attribute.

A Relative Database Model is still used if it applies a full set of rules specified by Dr. E.F. Codd. There are 12 Dr. Codd Laws. In them all, only Oracle can obey almost all of them. However, Sybase’s optimal result is easier to customize than Oracle.


SQL is Structured Query Language, actually. This is said to be ‘sequel,’ but ‘Ess-Que-El’ is also true.
Initially, it was called the Structured English Query Language (S E Que L) Sequel by Dr. E.F. Codd.

SQL is built on the model of relations. Almost every database deployment worldwide is in the Relational Model. Sybase, SQL Server, Oracle, DB2 are the popular Relational Model implementation. But they are still maintained in the Object Relational Model category.
Microsoft Access should not be a relationship model. This uses some relational database flavours. But the pure Relational Database cannot be taken into consideration.


The American National Standards Institute handles SQL specifications. The updates are made sometimes. The ANSI-SQL-89, ANSI-SQL-92 and other specifications are available to us.
Several stages have been decided. The entry level is provided to Microsoft SQL Server.


It’s just about getting password protection. There are several other studies in the same situation, and when these studies are complete, I would like to share my ideas. Overall, I wanted to open the eyes to the fact that back-ups can not only protect your files, but can result in information leakage due to carelessness. In my view, it is more dangerous than loss of knowledge to disclose important information. Knowledge is critical, therefore, and there is some attempt to secure your backups.

Leave a Comment

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This